There are two routes typically applied to a cognitive approach to substance abuse: tracking the thoughts that pull patients to addiction and tracking the thoughts that prevent them from relapsing. Behavioral techniques have the widest application in treating substance related disorders. Behavioral psychologists can use the techniques of “aversion therapy,” based on the findings of Pavlov's classical conditioning. It uses the principle of pairing abused substances with unpleasant stimuli or conditions; for example, pairing pain, electrical shock, or nausea with alcohol consumption.[37] The use of medications may also be used in this approach, such as using disulfiram to pair unpleasant effects with the thought of alcohol use. Psychologists tend to use an integration of all these approaches to produce reliable and effective treatment. With the advanced clinical use of medications, biological treatment is now considered to be one of the most efficient interventions that psychologists may use as treatment for those with substance dependence.[37]
SMART Recovery was founded by Joe Gerstein in 1994 by basing REBT as a foundation. It gives importance to the human agency in overcoming addiction and focuses on self-empowerment and self-reliance.[32] It does not subscribe to disease theory and powerlessness.[33] The group meetings involve open discussions, questioning decisions and forming corrective measures through assertive exercises. It does not involve a lifetime membership concept, but people can opt to attend meetings, and choose not to after gaining recovery. Objectives of the SMART Recovery programs are:[34]
One of the major benefits of limiting our enrolment is having the space for flexibility and individuality a larger institution can never accommodate. While our addiction treatment program is primarily focused on evidence-based psychotherapy, we are open and able to integrate into this whichever alternative therapies appeal to each resident. Our goal is to provide each of our residents with precisely the right combination of Psychological, Medical, Pharmaceutical, Nutritional, Alternative and Spiritual practices that will bring each of them their recovery. We pride ourselves in our ability to work with each resident closely, and offer him or her the care, support and treatment they need with compassion and dignity.
This internationally recognized nonprofit foundation has treatment centers in Texas, Florida and Pennsylvania. The Caron Foundation began when its founder, Richard Caron, used his home as a retreat for those in recovery. Eventually, he purchased a hotel on a farm in Pennsylvania and opened what is now one of the most successful treatment centers in the nation. The Caron Foundation uses a comprehensive approach to treatment and works with top university medical centers to further the efficacy of certain treatment methods. Caron centers its program on the 12-step method, but also has a unique relapse program.

For those searching specifically for drug rehabilitation, there are many treatment options available. Drug rehabilitation can include a variety of programs, levels of care and therapy options. Drug rehab centers can help those searching for help with comprehensive medical and emotional care. By working closely with clients to understand the underlying causes of addiction, a drug and alcohol treatment center can help clients heal by addressing the roots of substance use disorder.
Alcohol dependency is not a failure of will or lack of strength of character, as was believed for many years. However, progress in science over the last few decades has shown us that alcoholism is rooted in both biology and behaviour, making it a ‘bio-behavioural disorder’. Biology and behaviour are two sides of the same coin, and alcohol dependency cannot be treated by just focusing on one side alone.

Outpatient drug rehab provides patients with a more loosely defined schedule. This form of treatment allows patients to stay with their support system at home and maintain a limited presence at work or school. Both options offer patients a different range of therapeutic options and counseling with the goal of maintained abstinence and long-term recovery.
Alcohol Health & Research World notes that outpatient alcohol detox programs can be as safe and effective as inpatient detox, as long as the patients have been professionally screened and matched to the right level of care. With outpatient treatment, the average length of stay in rehab is usually shorter, and the cost is generally less. However, for patients at risk of serious alcohol withdrawal symptoms, or for those with co-occurring medical or psychiatric disorders, inpatient alcohol detox is often more appropriate.
Stimulants work by activating the central nervous system, inciting feelings of excitement and increasing physical and cognitive function. When a person uses these substances, they feel a rush of intense pleasure caused by a surge of dopamine. A tolerance can build up over time from frequent stimulant use, which can signify the early stages of an abuse disorder.
Stimulants, such as tobacco, cocaine or prescription amphetamines, stimulate the brain and nervous system, causing increased alertness. Depressants, such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines, slow activity in the brain and nervous system, causing relaxation. Hallucinogens, such as LSD and PCP, drastically disrupt the way the brain and nervous system communicate, causing hallucinations. Rehab: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO)
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